Design of the hottest fruit and vegetable post har

2022-08-14
  • Detail

In order to adapt to the fierce competition in the fruit and vegetable market and realize the industrialization of fruit and vegetable production, we must do a good job in the post harvest treatment of fruits and vegetables. This paper focuses on setting up the post harvest processing production line of fruits and vegetables, introduces some related mechanical equipment, and assembles the mechanical equipment into the required post harvest processing production line according to the actual needs of different post harvest processing of fruits and vegetables, so as to improve the efficiency of post harvest processing of fruits and vegetables and gradually realize the automation of post harvest processing. So that the post harvest fruit and vegetable products can be soaked and cleaned on the production line (you can use chemicals for fresh-keeping treatment), selected, graded, packaged (can be combined with labeling), so as to shorten the post harvest treatment time, reduce the loss of fruit and vegetable raw materials in the treatment process, speed up the storage or transportation time of fruits and vegetables into the cold storage, so as to extend the storage life of fruits and vegetables and improve the sales price. These activities rely on the application of modern science and technology to improve the mechanization and automation of post harvest processing of fruit and vegetable products, so as to improve the quality of products and labor productivity, reduce production costs, and improve the economic benefits of producers and operators. Using advanced technology and equipment to arm the fruit and vegetable industry has become a very important and urgent task of China's fruit and vegetable industry

key words: fruit and vegetable post harvest processing production line

preface

China is extremely rich in fruit and vegetable resources, and a large part of the cultivation in the world originated in China. Therefore, China is a huge base for fruit and vegetable production, and it is also one of the earliest countries to carry out fruit and vegetable storage and preservation technology

fruits and vegetables are indispensable non-staple food in people's life and important health food. Fruits and vegetables are rich in vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, organic acids, fibers and aromatic substances. And fruits and vegetables can also prevent scurvy, night blindness, hypertension and other diseases. Moreover, with the improvement of people's living standards, people's demand for grain and food has greatly decreased, while the demand for non-staple food such as fruits and vegetables has greatly increased. Therefore, the fruit and vegetable planting industry has developed rapidly in recent years, and the competition has increased relatively. Now China has joined the world trade organization, which is a big challenge to China's fruit and vegetable industry. However, the fierce competition has also injected new vitality into the fruit and vegetable industry. Now the number and quality of fruit and vegetable products on the market have been greatly improved

at present, an important problem faced by China's fruit and vegetable industry is the low degree of post harvest processing of products, which will curb the development of China's fruit and vegetable industry compared with developed countries. Especially in the south of China, because it is located in the tropics and subtropics, most fruits and vegetables are not resistant to transportation and storage, and the high temperature and humidity in the south make fruits and vegetables more perishable. If there is no necessary post harvest treatment, it will suffer great losses in the process of transportation and storage or restrict external sales. On the other hand, people have higher and higher requirements for fruit and vegetable products. In addition to good flavor, fruits and vegetables are also required to have good appearance and exquisite packaging. But now the production mode of fruit and vegetable farmers is still relatively backward, it is difficult to achieve reasonable post harvest treatment, and it is difficult to maintain good fruit and vegetable quality, which often leads to low added value of products, and even a situation of "difficult to sell" or increasing production without increasing income, so they are in a disadvantageous position in the competition. An important way to solve this problem is to establish a fruit and vegetable post-harvest processing plant to do a good job in the post-harvest processing of fruit and vegetable products

based on the professional knowledge of fruits and vegetables, this paper mainly discusses the problems that should be paid attention to in the stages of fruits and vegetables from soaking and cleaning, through grading to packaging, as well as the relevant machinery and equipment used. Finally, several commonly used post harvest treatment production lines are listed to further strengthen the explanation, hoping to be helpful to relevant people

process flow

in order to ensure the excellent quality of fruits and vegetables after harvest, according to the current advanced technology of fruit and vegetable post-harvest treatment in advanced countries and the processing experience of domestic post-harvest treatment, and in combination with the specific situation of production, The following processing process is adopted for the post harvest treatment of fruits and vegetables:

field pre cooling harvesting, soaking, cleaning, selection and fresh-keeping treatment

cold storage, cold storage

pre cooling treatment, packaging, grading and transportation market

the content of this paper starts with soaking and cleaning, and ends with sorting, grading and packaging. Namely, post harvest treatment of fruit and vegetable products. In this process, every link is very important for storage and preservation. Soaking and cleaning can not only remove the dust, sediment and some microorganisms attached to the surface of fruits and vegetables, but also remove some residual chemical pesticides, so as to lay a good foundation for storage and preservation. Selection and trimming are also very important, with the purpose of eliminating products that do not meet the requirements of commodities with mechanical damage, pest damage, abnormal appearance, wilting and decay. And with the improvement of people's living standards and the introduction of clean vegetable standards, the selection and dressing of fruits and vegetables after harvest become more important. The selection of fruits and vegetables is relatively simple, such as sweet pepper, eggplant, melons, etc. the indicated value should drift or jump randomly. If the 220V voltage of the power supply is unstable, it is required to remove products that do not meet the commodity requirements. In addition, it is also required to cut the fruit stalk shoulder length or leave only the short stalk. Leaf vegetables are required to peel off the upper leaves that have no use value and cut the root. The purpose and significance of fruit and vegetable product classification is mainly to make it commercialized. It is for producers and fruit and vegetable managers to prepare for and price their products before they go on the market. Fruits and vegetables have high water content, poor protective tissue, are vulnerable to mechanical damage and microbial infection, and post harvest respiration will produce a lot of respiratory heat. Therefore, fruits and vegetables are easy to rot after harvest, reducing the commodity value and edible value. Good packaging can ensure the safe transportation and storage of products. Packaging can maintain good stability of fruits and vegetables in circulation, and improve commodity rate and sanitary quality. Packaging is also a part of commodities and an auxiliary means of trade. It provides specification units for market transactions, eliminating product weighing and counting one by one in the sales process. Pack the products together to form a small group, which is convenient for operation. Reasonable packaging is the commercialization and standardization of fruits and vegetables, which is conducive to making full use of the warehouse working space and reasonable stacking. Packaged fruit and vegetable products can be cooled in the pre cooling warehouse and then enter the storage warehouse, and can also be sold directly

the following describes the mechanical equipment used in post harvest processing and gives examples

1. Soaking cleaning and its equipment

fruits and vegetables are growing. In the process of harvesting, it is polluted by residual pesticides, dust, microorganisms and other pollutants. In order to keep fresh in the subsequent series of commercialization treatment, prevent decay and deterioration, further increase luster and beauty, and improve commodity value, fruits and vegetables must be soaked and thoroughly cleaned. Cleaning is mainly carried out through mechanical and chemical actions. Mechanical action is to wash away the pollutants attached to the surface of fruits and vegetables through physical methods such as soaking, blowing, friction, agitation, spraying, brushing, vibration and so on. The chemical action is to use the cleaning fluid to react with the pollutants to wash the pollutants away. These methods can be used alone, but they are more used in combination. The commonly used raw material cleaning machines are as follows

1.1 blast cleaning machine

the cleaning principle of the blast cleaning machine is to use the blower to send air into the washing tank, so that the water of the cleaning raw materials will turn violently, and the materials will be cleaned under the violent agitation of air to water. Mixing with air can not only accelerate the washing of pollutants from the raw materials, but also make the raw materials turn strongly without destroying their integrity. Therefore, it is most suitable for the cleaning of fruit and vegetable raw materials

the mechanism of the blast cleaning machine is shown in the figure. It is mainly composed of the following components: washing tank 1, conveyor 11, water spray device 2, air blowing pipe 7, support 5, blower 4, motor 22 and transmission system, tensioning device and selection workbench, etc. The conveyor belt mechanism varies according to different raw materials. Some use idlers to carry raw materials, such as cleaning tomatoes, etc., some install scrapers on the chain plate, such as cleaning fruits, etc., and some use metal wires, such as cleaning tubers. In order to facilitate the picking and trimming of raw materials, the speed of the conveyor belt is generally about 1.1~1.4m/s. The transmission system consists of belt rotation, gear transmission and sprocket transmission. The blower and conveyor are driven by the same motor, the blast pressure is about 0.125mpa, and the water spray pressure and water volume are supplied by the water supply mechanism of the workshop. The conveying part has two sections of horizontal conveying, one of which is inclined conveying. The lower horizontal section is under the water surface of the washing tank, and the raw materials are cleaned here; The upper horizontal section is used for checking and trimming raw materials. The inclined part is sprayed with water. The sewage after soaking is discharged from the drainage pipe at the bottom of the soaking tank. The cleaning efficiency of this kind of cleaning machine depends on the type of fruit and vegetable raw materials and the degree of pollution

1.2 roller washer

roller washer has simple structure, high productivity, thorough cleaning and little damage to products. It is mostly used for cleaning apples, oranges, tomatoes, potatoes, beans and other fruits and vegetables. The structure is as follows, which is mainly composed of feed hopper, discharge hopper, roller, water tank, sprinkler, transmission device and frame

the rotating drum is its main component, which is placed at an inclined angle of 3~5 degrees from the horizontal. The belt pulley and gear are driven by the motor to rotate, and the speed is about 8R/min. The raw materials of fruits and vegetables enter the drum evenly from the feed hopper through the belt conveyor. With the rotation of the drum, the materials are constantly overturned, and the materials and the surface of the drum and the surface of the materials and materials rub against each other. At the same time, high-pressure water is sprayed to wash the surface of the materials. The cleaned sewage and sediment flow into the bottom tank of the washer through the pores of the drum and are discharged from the sewage outlet. During the cleaning process, due to the inclination of the drum, the materials move slowly from high to bottom under the action of gravity, and finally are discharged from the discharge port. Cleaning with the economic tension of people in aerospace, national defense, kerosene chemical industry, transportation and other fields, the time of household property mediation, troubleshooting and upgrading depends on the flow speed of materials from the feeding port to the discharging port, which depends on the inclination of the drum

the screw washer is composed of feeding port, screw pusher, nozzle, hob, pump, filter and motor. Its main working part is screw pusher 2. The lower part of the passenger outside the pusher is filter 7, so that sewage can leak into the sink. In the process of upward feeding, the surface dirt is removed by friction between the material and the spiral surface, shell and material. Several nozzles are installed in the middle of the machine to wash dirt. This kind of machine is mainly used here not only to provide you with high-quality experimental machines, but also to equip fruits, roots, tubers and vegetables$ Page break $

1.4 brush washer

brush washer can effectively improve the cleaning effect through soaking, brushing and spraying. The water in the sink can also be heated directly by steam, which is suitable for cleaning apples, oranges, pears, tomatoes, etc. As shown in the figure

during operation, the material enters the cleaning tank from the feed inlet. Under the relatively inward rotation of the brush roller equipped with a brush, the material is cleaned in the whirling environment formed by the agitation of water. At the same time, due to the pressure difference of water flow between the brush rollers, the material automatically flows between the brush rollers and is brushed. After brushing, the material floats upward, moves along the circular arc through the tipping hopper, and is washed by hand with high-pressure water spray

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