Fresh keeping and processing method of Zizania lat

2022-07-27
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Preservation and processing methods of water bamboo

water bamboo, also known as water bamboo melon, wild rice head and wild bamboo shoot, is a perennial aquatic herb of Gramineae. It originated in China and evolved from a plant called "wild rice". In China, Zizania latifolia is widely distributed, ranging from Heilongjiang in the north to Hainan in the south, but most of them are in the south of the Yangtze River. Only Southeast Asia has sporadic cultivation abroad

I. preservation methods. Zizania latifolia has high water content and rich nutrition. The tissue will turn bran, turn red and rot after harvest. At present, spring water bamboo is about to come into the market. It is mainly green shell and thin shell varieties, with a large output. If the product can be kept fresh for a period of time and the centralized listing period is staggered, it will produce 1.08 billion good economic benefits compared with the biodegradable document seals used by China's express industry in 2017. At present, the commonly used storage methods are as follows:

1. Treatment before storage. According to the variety characteristics, timely harvest, too old and too tender are not conducive to storage. When Zizania latifolia expands to a certain extent, the leaf tip will begin to break, that is, harvest it before "white exposure", and leave cm of the stem tube, otherwise Zizania latifolia will change its green color and reduce its quality. The best harvest time is in the morning

when stacking or transporting after harvest, try to avoid exposure to the sun. Timely select and grade the water bamboo according to the shape, weight, etc., select the water bamboo with the same size, solid and strong meat, free of diseases, pests and mechanical damage, remove the green water bamboo, gray water bamboo, old water bamboo, small water bamboo and broken water bamboo, cut off the long stalk tube, remove the outer sheath, and leave a piece of shell. Do not damage the thin water bamboo shell that directly wraps the water bamboo meat in the innermost layer

2. Storage method

⑴ we were surprised by the warehouse stacking method. After pretreatment, it shall be fully distributed in a cool and ventilated place in time, and then it shall be spread on the ground of the warehouse, with the maximum stacking layer. Because it is stored at room temperature, it is generally used for a very short time before distribution after harvest, which has a certain effect on the balanced supply

⑵ cellaring method. This method is generally used for late maturing Zizania latifolia in the north. After the above treatment, it is directly spread on the vegetable rack in the cellar to keep the cellar temperature at ℃. Drying and low temperature make Zizania latifolia can be stored for a short time, but it is easy to cause water loss and wilting

⑶ salt sealing method. Select the tank or pool as the container, lay a layer of salt about cm thick on the bottom, lay the water bamboo in the container, stack it cm away from the container mouth, and then seal it with salt. This method is suitable for areas with dry air and cold temperature

⑷ clear water storage method. Put the water bamboo in a water tank or pool, fill it with clean water and then press a stone to make the water bamboo immerse in the water. After that, change the water frequently to keep the water tank and pool clean. The Zizania latifolia stored in this way for a short time has fresh texture, good appearance and meat quality

and re list the mark of A.B.C mound (5) alum water storage method. Lay the water bamboo in the water tank or pool layer by layer according to the order, stack it to cm away from the pool mouth, clamp it in the shape of a well with sterilized bamboo pieces, press the stones, and compact the water bamboo. Add 0 Prepare alum water with the proportion of 6kg alum and pour it into the tank to make the water cm higher than that of water bamboo. Check once every other day. If foam is found on the water surface, it should be removed in time; If there is too much foam and the water turns yellow, change the water in time to prevent the water bamboo from rotting. This method is simple to use, but it is only suitable for short-term storage

⑥ simple cold storage method: do not peel off the leaf sheath after harvest, dip the base in alum powder before storage, tie it into small bundles weighing 7.5kg, and stack it on the shelves in the cold storage or horse riding storage. The storage temperature is controlled at ℃, and the humidity is about 90%. Defrost once every 7 days to stabilize the storage temperature. Some distribution companies use 0.12mm thick polyethylene film curtain to make simple air conditioning, strengthen sealing, and keep the CO2 content in the curtain at%, so as to control the disease of Zizania latifolia during storage and reduce the loss caused by its own respiration. Therefore, the effect is good

⑺ preservation factor regulation method. This method was developed by Gao Haiyan, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, etc. it is the most practical and effective method in the storage of Zizania latifolia at present. It has been widely used in Jiangsu and Zhejiang. It has been kept fresh for months, with a yield of more than 2 yuan per kilogram, and obvious economic benefits

Zizania latifolia should be cleaned during pretreatment to remove soil impurities; Then precooling shall be carried out immediately, preferably by water precooling. Simple operation: put the container full of clean water into the fresh-keeping warehouse. When the water temperature reaches about 1 ℃, put water bamboo into the water to cool down. Prepare a special biological preservative solution with a concentration of 0.1%, soak the water bamboo for 1 minute, and take it out to dry. The preservative can also be put into the precooling water so that the precooling of Zizania latifolia can be carried out together with the preservative treatment. The dried water bamboo shall be placed in a special bag for fresh keeping, which shall not be placed vertically or squeezed. Each bag shall contain about kg, and the bag mouth shall be open. Put it into SMCs and NSS type fresh-keeping warehouses disinfected by sulfur fumigation, and seal the bag mouth after 24 hours

after Zizania latifolia is put into storage, the temperature in the warehouse shall be controlled at about ℃ to prevent sharp changes; Keep the relative humidity above 90%; Keep the O2 concentration below 5% and CO2 concentration about 15% in the storehouse and the fresh-keeping bags. If the CO2, O2 concentration is too high or there is a strong taste of Zizania latifolia meat, the bags should be opened in time and ventilation measures should be taken

II. Processing method

1. Micro processing (clean vegetable) water bamboo. It is a trend of urban consumption that fresh vegetables, i.e. clean vegetables, are only slightly processed, such as peeling and cutting. Zhou Tao, et al. Of Jiangnan University used self regulating gas packaging (map) to better maintain the tenderness of Zizania latifolia in short-term storage and inhibit greening. The fresh-keeping method of pure vegetable Zizania latifolia developed by Gao Haiyan and others can significantly reduce respiratory intensity and ethylene release, delay decay and aging, and make the fresh-keeping period reach more than one month. Specific methods: select robust and undamaged Zizania latifolia. After shelling, wash it once with flowing water and twice with sterile water. Drain the fresh-keeping liquid. After taking it out, put it into the special fresh-keeping bag for clean Zizania latifolia. Each bag contains 3 pieces. Put it into the fresh-keeping warehouse for storage. Keep the cold chain at low temperature during the sales process

2. Dry water bamboo and white stem. Put the peeled water bamboo into boiling water for 5 minutes, dry it and cut it into filaments with a thickness and width of 0.5 cm, dry it in the sun or in an oven at ℃, and put it in a plastic bag to seal against moisture. When eating, soak in warm water for 2 hours

3. Salted water bamboo. Peel the water bamboo, wash it and dry it in the air. Deal with it the same day. Do not use it the next day to prevent it from turning red. Immerse in 3% salt water and press stones or other heavy objects to prevent floating. After dehydration, add some water bamboo to make the pressure between water bamboo and water bamboo as tight as possible, so as to maintain the original white of water bamboo and prolong the storage time. At this time, the brine concentration increases to 5%. When white floating blocks appear on the water surface, they shall be removed in time. This method was used for the export of water bamboo in China before

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